Environments: (where they lived and what was around them. )
Physical environment: The Caddo lived in east and northeast Texas. This part of Texas is the western end of a pine forest that goes from the Atlantic ocean across the South and into East Texas. This is a dense pine forest, with hardwood trees like oak, hickory and pecan growing in the river bottoms and creek bottoms. There are several large rivers, the Trinity river, the Red river, and several smaller rivers. There are also many smaller flowing creeks and numerous springs. This part of Texas gets a good annual rainfall and has many rivers, creeks, swamps and lakes.
The Hasinais Caddo lived and farmed in small clearings in the pine forest. Most of the Hasinais farms and villages are near flowing creeks or springs with fresh water. They farmed because farming was the best way to get food. There were no big herds of buffalo or other animals to hunt. They were sedentary because they farmed and did not have to move around to get food so they had permanent houses.
Social environment: Farmers have larger and denser populations. The Caddo formed confederations to protect and defend themselves from other tribes with their large numbers. They were friendly with most of the tribes to the west and south of them. To the north the Osage Indians were enemies. They also traded goods all over Texas, the Mississippi river valley and the southeastern United States.
The Kadohadache Caddo were probably a paramount chiefdom with one big chief over many subchiefs. The paramount chief lived in a centrally located village and the subchiefs lived in smaller villages up and down the Red river.
The Hasinais were also a paramount chiefdom, or a confederacy of tribes. There were 9-12 tribes, depending on who's list of tribes you use -- maybe more or maybe less. There was also a paramount priest in the Hasinais who was over the other priests in each tribe.
They had farming tools like hoes and digging sticks. Because they lived in the woods they had many wood working tools like axes, plains, drills and saws. They made beautiful polished stone axes. For weapons they had bows and arrows.
A Polished stone axe.
They made exceptional pottery. See the pottery section of the main page.
See the main page for pictures of Caddo houses.